Buffalo colonize the permanent and semi-permanent swamps, and freshwater springs of the top end of the Northern Territory. Australia has two types of buffalo: the river type from western Asia, with curled horns, and the swamp type from eastern Asia, with swept-back horns.

Feral buffalo are large (450–1200 kilogram) herbivores that prefer to live in swamps and floodplains across the wet parts of northern Australia, where they have ready access to food and water. In years with low rainfall, many feral buffalo die, and the remaining ones are restricted to the northern river plains and associated swamps. After a series of wetter years, feral buffalo can spread again, with populations building to densities of up to 34 animals per kilometre square.

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